Tuesday, August 6, 2019

Scientist have revealed a new approach to convert carbon dioxide gas into valuable chemicals and fuels.

A growing number of scientists are looking for fast, cost-effective ways to convert carbon dioxide gas into valuable chemicals and fuels.
Now, an international team of researchers has revealed a new approach that utilizes a series of catalytic reactions to electrochemically reduce carbon dioxide to methane, the main ingredient in natural gas, eliminating an intermediate step usually needed in the reduction process.

"We want to supply renewable electricity and take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it to something else in one step," said Bingjun Xu , a University of Delaware assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering. "This is a key contribution to this vision."
The team's results were published in the journal Nature Communications on July 26, 2019. Two of the study authors are based at UD: Xu and postdoctoral associate Xiaoxia Chang. Another study author, Qi Lu of Tsinghua University in China, was formerly a postdoctoral associate in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at UD.
The paper's authors also include Haochen Zhen from Tsinghua University, Jingguang Chen from Columbia University, William Goddard III from the California Institute of Technology and Mu-Jeng Cheng from National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan.
A one-pot system
To convert carbon dioxide into valuable fuels, you have to start with a surface made of copper, the metal famous for its use in pennies and electrical wiring. Copper can be used to reduce carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide, which can then be further transformed into substances such as methane. This process is relatively simple, but it requires two reactors and costly separation and purification steps.
The research team used computations and experiments to design a one-pot catalysis system. Add carbon dioxide, and a series of chemical reactions will happen without the need to stop and add more chemicals.
To do this, the team added special nanostructured silver surfaces, which were developed by Lu when he was a postdoctoral associate at UD from 2012 to 2015, to the copper surfaces. The silver portion attracts carbon monoxide molecules, which then migrate to the copper portion and reduce to methane. The system yields a higher concentration of methane than copper-only systems.
"In this work the primary novelty is to combine these two in a configuration so that several steps of reaction could occur in one system," said Xu. "We systematically modified the composition, the silver-to-copper ratio in the structure. Those are key to the selectivity and ability to combine the reactions."
Previous attempts to combine copper with precious metal in this way have failed, but the group developed a special type of electrode structure that enabled the system. The research was the result of a collaborative effort with research groups contributing spectroscopy, computation, and studies of the reactivity of materials.

Story Source:
Materials provided by University of Delaware. Original written by Julie Stewart. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Journal Reference:
Haochen Zhang, Xiaoxia Chang, Jingguang G. Chen, William A. Goddard, Bingjun Xu, Mu-Jeng Cheng, Qi Lu. Computational and experimental demonstrations of one-pot tandem catalysis for electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction to methaneNature Communications, 2019; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11292-9

Friday, July 5, 2019

Biopolymers - an Overview

What Is a Biopolymer?

It is a polymer that is developed from living beings. It is a biodegradable chemical compound that is regarded as the most organic compound in the ecosphere. The name “Biopolymer” indicates that it is a bio-degradable polymer.
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Natural and synthetic polymers
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Example of Biopolymer

Some Biopolymer examples are
  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • DNA
  • RNA
  • Lipids
  • Nucleic acids
  • Peptides
  • Polysaccharides (such as glycogen, starch and cellulose)
         The most common biopolymer is Cellulose. It is also the most abundant organic compound on this planet. It comprises of 33% of all plant component on Earth.

    Biopolymer Classification

    There are four main types of Biopolymers. These are

    Sugar based Biopolymers

    Starch or Sucrose is used as input for manufacturing Polyhydroxibutyrate. Sugar based polymers can be produced by blowing, injection, vacuum forming and extrusion. Lactic acid polymers (Polyactides) are created from milk sugar (lactose) that is extracted from potatoes, maize, wheat and sugar beet. Polyactides are resistant to water and can be manufactured by methods like vacuum forming, blowing and injection molding.

    Starch based Biopolymers

    Starch acts as a natural polymer and can be obtained from wheat, tapioca, maize and potatoes. The material is stored in tissues of plants as one way carbohydrates. It is composed of glucose and can be obtained by melting starch. This polymer is not present in animal tissues. It can be found in vegetables like tapioca, corn, wheat and potatoes.
  • Biopolymer based on Synthetic materials

    Synthetic compounds that are obtained from petroleum can also be used for making biodegradable polymers such as aliphatic aromatic copolyesters. Though these polymers are manufactured from synthetic components, they are completely compostable and bio-degradable.

    Cellulose based Biopolymers

    These are used for packing cigarettes, CDS and confectionary. This polymer is composed of glucose and is the primary constituent of plant cellular walls. It is obtained from natural resources like cotton, wood, wheat and corn.
    The production of biopolymer may be done either from animal products or agricultural plants.

    Biopolymers types

    There are primarily two types of Biopolymer, one that is obtained from living organisms and another that is produced from renewable resources but require polymerization. Those created by living beings include proteins and carbohydrates.

    Biopolymer structures

    Unlike synthetic polymers, Biopolymers have a well-marked structure. These polymers have a uniformly distributed set of molecular mass and appear as a long chain of worms or a curled up string ball under a microscope. This type of polymer is differentiated based on their chemical structure.

    Biopolymer Uses

    These polymers play an essential role in nature. They are extremely useful in performing functions like storage of energy, preservation and transmittance of genetic information and cellular construction.
    • Sugar based polymers, such as Polyactides, naturally degenerate in the human body without producing any harmful side effects. This is the reason why they are used for medical purposes. Polyactides are commonly used as surgical implants.
    • Starch based biopolymers can be used for creating conventional plastic by extruding and injection molding.
    • Biopolymers based on synthetic are used to manufacture substrate mats.
    • Cellulose based Biopolymers, such as cellophane, are used as a packaging material.
    • These chemical compounds can be used to make thin wrapping films, food trays and pellets for sending fragile goods by shipping.

    Biopolymer Environmental Benefits

    Some of the environmental benefits of this polymer are:
    • These polymers are carbon neutral and can always be renewed. These are sustainable as they are composed of living materials.
    • These polymers can reduce carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and also decrease carbon emissions. This happens because bio-degradation of these chemical compounds can release carbon dioxide that can be reabsorbed by crops grown as a substitute in their place.
    • It is also compostable which means there is less chance of environmental pollution from this compound. This is one of the primary advantages of this chemical compound. However, the materials composed from this compound are not compostable.
    • These chemical compounds reduce dependency on non-renewable fossil fuels. These are easily biodegradable and can decrease air pollution. It greatly reduces the harmful effect of plastic use on the environment. Long term use of biopolymer use will limit the use of fossil fuel.

    Difference between Polymer and Biopolymer

    Biopolymers and Bioplastics are often confused for one another. However, these are different materials. Biopolymers are polymers that can be found in or manufactured by, living organisms. These also involve polymers that are obtained from renewable resources that can be used to manufacture Bioplastics by polymerization.

    Bioplastics are the plastics that are created by using biodegradable polymers. The great automobile manufacturer Henry Ford devised a way of manufacturing bioplastic car sections from soybeans back in the middle of the 20th century. However, the beginning of the Second World War stopped production of bioplastic cars. It is only recently that bioplastic cars have made a comeback due to development of new manufacturing techniques through biotechnology.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

What is the state of matter of fire 🔥?


  Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the
exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction
   Typically, fire comes from a chemical reaction between oxygen in the atmosphere and some sort of fuel(wood or gasoline for example). Of course, wood and gasoline don't spontaneously catch on fire just because they're surrounded by oxygen. For the combustion reaction to happen, you have to heat the fuel to its ignition temperature.

Fire is hot because the conversion of the weak
double bond in molecular oxygen, O2 , to the stronger bonds in the combustion products
carbon dioxide and water releases energy (418 kJ per 32 g of O 2); the bond energies of the fuel play only a minor role here. At a certain point in the combustion reaction, called the ignition point, flames are produced. The flame is the visible portion of the fire. Flames consist primarily of carbon dioxide, water vapor, oxygen and nitrogen. If hot enough, the gases may become ionized to produce plasma. Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire's intensity will be different.

      Fire is made up of many different substances, so it is not an element. For the most part, fire is a mixture of hot gases. Flames are the result of a chemical reaction, primarily between oxygen in the air and a fuel, such as wood or propane. In addition to other products, the reaction produces carbon dioxide , steam, light, and heat . If the flame is hot enough, the gases are ionized and become yet another state of matter : plasma. Burning a metal, such as magnesium, can ionize the atoms and form plasma. This type of oxidation is the source of the intense light and heat of a plasma torch.
Most of the matter in flame is a gas, so the safest answer to "what is the state of matter of fire?" is to say it's a gas. Or, you can say it's mostly gas, with a smaller amount of plasma.

The color of the flame is an indication of its temperature and also the chemical composition of the fuel. A flame emits incandescent light, where light with the highest energy (hottest part of the flame) is blue, and that with the least energy (coolest part of the flame) is redder. The chemistry of the fuel plays its part. This is the basis for the flame test to identify chemical composition. For example, a blue flame may appear green if a boron-containing salt is present.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Did You Know: The Amazing Benefits Of Orange Peels

uses of orange peels.

There a lot of orange peel uses you can try at home.
check out the amazing things you can do with orange peels something you probably throw away.

Stop worrying about storing stinky shoes in the closet, Before putting them away place a sachet filled with orange peels in each shoe. The peels will absorb the odor and keep the shoes smelling fresh for long time.

        2.   MAKE CANDLES

To make an orange candle, cut the orange in half and remove the middle part leaving the stem intact, Fill the rind with your choice of oil.
Make sure to leave a few inches from the top of the stem as it will serve as you wick.

You could keep your refrigerator smelling fresh for days with just half an orange!
Fill up an orange peel with salt and put in a bowl, Place the bowl in the fridge and let it do the work

         4.       CREATE NATURAL CLEANER.

Add orange peels in a bottle of vinegar and store for weeks in the refrigerator, Shake it occasionally. When you’re ready to use it, transfer the mixture into a spray bottle.
 You can use this on floors, windows, and other types of surfaces

soap scum remover.

If you’re entertaining guests, make sure your glass wares and metal fixtures are spot free.
To remove soap scum, Fill a sink with warm water and add some orange peels. Soak your glass wares into it for about five minutes, The citric acid from the orange peel will wash away cloudiness caused by soap scum & minerals.




Wednesday, April 3, 2019


Coca-cola and milk mixture.
       Coca-cola, like many soft drinks, use a significant amount of Phosphoric acid(H3PO4) to impart an acidic taste while stifling the growth of molds and bacteria in the drink.
  When you add milk to coca-cola or any other drink with phosphoric acid, results into layers which form a sewer liquid at the top and a sandy gravel residue after adding the milk into it and kept for about 6hours.
  This is as a result of the phosphate ions from the phosphoric acid which binds with the calcuim molecules in the milk.
 Here is the chemical equation  for the reaction.
            3Ca + 2H3PO4---> Ca3(PO4)2 + 3H2
Result formed after kept for few hours.

The resulting compound is Tricalciumphosphate (Ca3(PO4)2which is heavy combination of two phosphate ions and three calcium ions. That is why it sinks to the bottom. The hydrogen gas that is produced floats to the top of the clear liquid which is now (mostly) devoid of phosphate and calcium ions.
    The product taste exactly like the soft-drink but irritating also it poisonous and not advisable to drink.

Tuesday, February 5, 2019


STEP 1-Bed Bug Pre-treatment Procedures
  1. Reduce Clutter
  2. Remove Dresser Drawers
  3. Clean the Area
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Reduce Clutter:
Remove all personal items (stuffed animals, soft toys, blankets, electronics, etc) and anything that does not stay in the room permanently. Caution: Be mindful that items from the infested area can transfer bed bugs to other areas. It is best to bag them in plastic with Nuvan Strips.
Remove Dresser Drawers:
Remove drawers from desks and dressers since bed bugs like to hide in these areas. Turn furniture over to inspect and clean all hiding spots. All furniture should be pulled away from the walls.
Clean the Area
Scrub infested surfaces with a stiff brush to dislodge eggs. Bed bugs cling tightly to surfaces. Caution: It is not good to use a bristle attachment, because you may transfer bed bugs to other areas since they cling to the brush.
STEP 2-Bed Bug Inspection
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Bed Bug Appearance
Tip: The common Bed Bug can be seen with the naked eye. Since bed bugs are difficult to see, use a magnifying glass.
Bedbug Pictures: What does a bed bug look like?
Adult bed bugs are brown to reddish-brown, oval-shaped, flattened, and about 1/4 to 5/8 inch long. Note: Their flat shape enables them to readily hide in most cracks and crevices.Tip: Eggs are not placed on the host's body (the person sleeping in the bed), but the eggs are found on surfaces near where the host sleeps.
Bed Bug Inspection Tips:
  • Look in any place that offers darkness, isolation and protection to the bed bug.
  • Inspect adjoining rooms where an infestation is found. Even when the bed bugs themselves cannot be found, their hiding places can be located by looking for the spots of fecal material they often leave.
  • Use an Insecticide such as S.B SUPER INSECTICIDE to flush the bed bugs out of suspected hiding places. These liquid kill on contact, but the idea is to flush them out for inspection

Bed Bug Inspection Check List
Inspect these Areas:
  1. The Mattress and Box Spring
  2. Bed Frame and Head / Foot Boards
  3. Other Furniture
  4. Walls and Carpet
  5. Electronics and Appliances

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The Mattress and Box Spring
Check the mattress throughly, paying close attention to seams and tufts along the edges. Flip the mattress over and inspect the bottom carefully as well. Pay particular attention to any rips in the fabric. View the fabric on the bottom of the box spring and shine a flash light to verify that bed bugs have not penetrated the interior of the box spring.
Bed Frame and Head and Foot Boards
Remove the mattress and box frame from the bed frame and shine a flash light all along every potential hiding place on the bed frame. Remember bed bugs can slip into an crack a business card can fit into.
Other Furniture: Desks, Chairs, Dressers, etc
Take out all drawers and cushions from surrounding furniture. Check all seams and crevices carefully with a flashlight. Take your time and inspect thoroughly. Bed Bugs are commonly found in these areas in an infested room.
Walls and Carpet
Inspect the surrounding walls by removing electrical switch plates and any wall hangings. Check under tack strips and behind baseboards where ever possible. Shine light into cracks in plaster and seams along wall paper.
Electronics and Other Applicances
Unfortunately electronics and appliances provide a perfect hiding spot for bed bugs. Check them closely with a flashlight and magnifying glass as well. Remove them when possible. Placing smaller ones in a bag with Nuvan Strips is an effective way to save the device.
Additional Bed Bug Inspection Notes
Bed Bug fecal and blood spots (look like rust) are left on sheets and pillowcases when the engorged bed bugs are crushed. These indicators serve as sure signs of infestation. Bed bugs prefer to hide in cracks and crevices during the daytime and come out to feed on the host's blood at night, usually while the host is sleeping.
Since bed bugs can flatten their bodies, they fit in very small crevices, specially around the bed area. They are found in habitual hiding places, preferably close to a blood meal. Even though their preference is to be close they can travel several feet for a blood meal.
Initial infestations tend to be around beds, but the bugs eventually become scattered throughout a room, occupying any crevice or protected location. They can also spread to adjacent rooms or apartments.
How to treat the mattress with insecticides:
Look carefully at the folds and seams of the mattress, the headboard, foot board (if present), box spring/support platform, frame, etc for bedbugs and treat these area after vacumming.
The following residual insecticide is labeled to spray mattresses:
To order for one kindly contact:
Babalola- 07084421068
 STEP3-Bed Bug Treatment Procedures
Treat all baseboards and furniture (Night Stand, Chests, Dressers, Couches and Chairs)
Bed Bug Treatment: Sprays and Dusts
There are several products on the market that work well for bed bugs:
Apply residual liquid or aerosols insecticides such as: S.B SUPER INSECTICIDE

Spray liquid insecticides or aerosols:
  • Spray around and under the bed and along the baseboards near the bed. After removing the drawers from the furniture, the inside of the cabinetry should be sprayed as well as the bottom and sides of the drawers. Do not treat the inside of the drawers. If needed the clothes in the drawers should be removed and laundered.
  • Spray around the inside of closets, door frames and doors.
  • Spray molding at the top and bottom of the room. Spray around windows.
  • Spray seams of drawers, both top and bottom. Spray dressers from below. Spray where dressers touch the floor.
  • Spray where the bed touches the floor, spray chairs and underneath chairs.
  • Spray all baseboards, loose plaster, behind bed frames and headboards, beneath beds and furniture, and bedsprings and bed frames. Do not apply to furniture surfaces or mattresses where people will be laying or sitting unless using a product labeled for that type of treatment. Infested bedding should not be treated, but should be removed, placed in sealed plastic bags, and taken for laundering and drying at high temperature.
Recommended Liquid Insecticides-S.B SUPER  INSECTICIDE

Babalola- 07084421068

Treatment Protocol
Important!! Do all of the treatments (as described above) 3 times, 10 days apart.
Bed bugs come out to feed every few weeks, so retreament is critical.

Scientist have revealed a new approach to convert carbon dioxide gas into valuable chemicals and fuels.

A growing number of scientists are looking for fast, cost-effective ways to convert carbon dioxide gas into valuable chemicals and fue...